Florence is the capital of Tuscany. Its origin goes back to the Romans when Julius Caeser established a settlement for veteran soldiers in 59 BC.

A city state in the middle ages, Florence was controled by two rival families, the Albizzi and the Medici.

It was declared the capital of Italy in 1865 only to be replaced by Rome six years later.


The area in and around the cathedral of Santa Maria del Fiore, the Campanile and Baptistry are the most visited.

Outside spaces

Attached to the Pitti palace, the main seat of the Medici, are the Boboli Gardens. There are a number modern sculptural works displaid in the gardens along with more classical pieces.

Image Ponte Vecchio, Florence
Image Lungarno degli Acciaiuoli and Ponte Santa Trinita reflected in the Arno, Florence
Image Baptistry, Duomo and Campanile, Florence
Image Duomo façade detail, Florence
Image Duomo façade and Campanile, Florence
Image Interior of the Baptistry, Florence
Image Interior of the Baptistry, Florence
Image Street art in chalk, Florence
Image Head of David in Boboli Gardens, Florence
Image Arches lining Lungarno Anna Maria Luisa de’ Medici, Florence
Image Florence panorama from Piazzale Michelangelo


Pisa is the capital of the Province of Pisa. It is the birthplace of Galileo Galilei. It has been the centre of many power struggles between different city states, including Florence and Genoa. 

Duomo and Baptistry

Construction of the Duomo began in the mid 11th century and it was consecrated in 1118 by Pope Gelasius II.

The baptistry’s construction ran from 1152 to 1363 and has two distict archirectual styles. The lower section is in the Romanesque style with the upper in Gothic.


Probably the most famous campanile in Italy, the “leaning” tower, it took over 199 years to contruct. The sinking started after the addition of the 2nd storey and construction was halted for nearly 100 years. When construction was restarted in 1272 the upper storeys were built with one side taller than the other to compensate for the subsidence, making the tower curve.

Image Baptistry, Duomo and Campanile, Pisa
Image Romanesque lower section of the Baptistry, Pisa
Image Duomo and Campanile on Piazza del Miracoli, Pisa
Image Dome of the Duomo, Pisa
Image Duomo façade and Campanile, Pisa
Image Leaning tower detail, Pisa